Economic Inclusion

This resource guide was compiled by the Democracy Resource Center and the Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE).

Search Terms

Use these subject headings to search WorldCat and find resources in a library near you.

Economic development – Political aspects
Democracy – Economic aspects

Tools & Databases

CGAP Research & Analysis
Searchable publications from the Consultative Group to Assist the Poor including data and infographics.

Economic Reform Toolkit: Reducing Economic Informality by Opening Access to Opportunity
Free downloadable toolkit from CIPE that explains the origins of the informal sector and describes methods for improving participation in markets and policymaking.

Global Financial Inclusion (Global Findex) Database
Database from the World Bank provides 850+ country-level indicators for financial inclusion beginning in 2011.

IDB Knowledge
Search research from the Inter-American Development Bank. Includes data and publications pages.

Transitioning to Formality – A Handbook for Policymakers and Business Enterprises
Free downloadable handbook outlining a roadmap for integrating informal sector in the formal sector.

World Bank Open Knowledge Repository
Searchable and regularly updated collection of publications from the World Bank including journals, technical papers, country strategy documents, and handbooks and manuals.


Africa Development Bank (ADB)
Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE)
Consultative Group to Assist the Poor (CGAP)
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
Solidarity Center
The World Bank

Select Articles and Working Papers

Bettcher, Kim Eric, Martin Friedl, and Gustavo Marini. 2009. “From the Streets to Markets:CIPE Reform Case Study.” Washington, DC: Center for International Private Enterprise.

Birnir J.K., and Waguespack D.M. 2011. “Ethnic inclusion and economic growth”. Party Politics. 17 (2): 243-260.

Bermeo, Nancy Gina. 2009. “Does Electoral Democracy Boost Economic Equality?” Journal of Democracy. 20 (4): 21-35.

Fukuyama F. 2011. “Dealing with inequality”. Journal of Democracy. 22 (3): 79-89.

Fukuyama, Francis. 2008. “The Latin American Experience”. Journal of Democracy. 19 (4): 69-79.

Kapstein, Ethan B., and Nathan Converse. 2008. “Why Democracies Fail”. Journal of Democracy. 19 (4): 57-68.

Lewis, Peter. 2008. “Growth Without Prosperity in Africa”. Journal of Democracy. 19 (4): 95-109.

Lichbach, Mark Irving. 1989. “An Evaluation of ‘Does Economic Inequality Breed Political Conflict?’
Studies.” World Politics 41 (4): 431–470.

Rueschemeyer, Dietrich. 2004. “Addressing Inequality”. Journal of Democracy. 15 (4): 76-90.

Select Books and Reports

Atkinson, Anthony, and Eric Marlier. 2010. Analyzing and Measuring Social Inclusion in a Global Context. New York: United Nations.

Begović, Boris. 2012. Driving Growth through Economic Freedom and the Rule of Law. Washington, D.C: Center for International Private Enterprise.

Buvinić, Mayra, Jacqueline Mazza, and Ruthanne Deutsch. 2004. Social inclusion and economic development in Latin America. Washington: Inter-American Development Bank.

Dahl, Robert Alan. 1998. On democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Dahl, Robert A. 1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Diamond, Larry Jay, and Marc F. Plattner. 1993. Capitalism, socialism, and democracy revisited. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Diamond, Larry Jay, and Marc F. Plattner. 1995. Economic reform and democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Feng, Yi. Democracy, governance, and economic performance: theory and evidence. 2003. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Fukuyama, Francis, Larry Jay Diamond, and Marc F. Plattner. 2012. Poverty, inequality, and democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Kharas, Homi. The Emerging Middle Class in Developing Countries. 2010. Paris: OECD Development Centre.

Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1981. Political man: the social bases of politics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Lopez-Calva, Luis F., Jamele Rigolini, Florencia Torche, and Luis F. Lopez-Calva. 2011. Is There Such Thing as Middle Class Values? Class Differences, Values and Political Orientations in Latin America. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Midlarsky, Manus I. 1997. Inequality, democracy, and economic development. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Moore, Barrington, Jr. 1966. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press.

Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Evelyne Huber, and John D. Stephens. 1992. Capitalist development and democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Seligson, Mitchell A., and John T. Passé-Smith. 1993. Development and underdevelopment: the political economy of inequality. Boulder, Colo: L. Rienner Publishers.

Soto, Hernando de. 2000. The mystery of capital: why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else. New York: Basic Books.

Sullivan, John D. 2012. Building Bridges: Why and how key linkages between economics, democracy, and governance affect economic growth? Washington, D.C: Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE).

Verba, Sidney, Norman H. Nie, and Jae-on Kim. 1987. Participation and political equality: a seven-nation comparison. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Vives, Antonio, Marco A. Ferroni, and Daniel Malkin. 2006. Sustaining development for all: expanding access to economic activity and social services. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank.

Women, Business and the Law: A Decade of Reform. 2019. Washington, D.C: World Bank.