Women’s Political Participation

Search Terms

Women Political Activity
Women and Democracy
Women Civic Leaders
Women in Politics


American Center for International Labor Solidarity (Solidarity Center)
International Center for Research on Women (ICRW)
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA)
International Knowledge Network of Women in Politics (iKNOW Politics)
National Democratic Institute (NDI)
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
United Nations Development Programme
Women’s Learning Partnership for Rights, Development, and Peace (WLP)
Women’s Democracy Network (WDN)

Websites & Tools

OSCE Promoting women’s political participation and gender equality

Handbooks and reports focusing on ensuring equal opportunity for participation of women in political and public life.

UN Women Digital Library
Comprehensive collection of gender focused research assessing progress, gaps, and challenges to the implementation of the SDGs.

WLP Learning Center
Search the Women’s Learning Partnership’s publications and manuals, training materials, interview archive, and more.

Select articles

Dahlerup, Drude, and Lenita Freidenvall. 2005. “Quotas as a ‘fast track’ to equal representation for women“. International Feminist Journal of Politics. 7 (1): 26-48. 

Dahlerup, Drude. 1988. “From a Small to a Large Minority: Women in Scandinavian Politics”. Scandinavian Political Studies. 11 (4): 275-298. https://tidsskrift.dk/scandinavian_political_studies/article/view/32616

Matland, Richard E. 1998. “Women’s Representation in National Legislatures: Developed and Developing Countries”. Legislative Studies Quarterly. 23 (1): 109-125. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235967629_Women’s_Representation_in_National_Legislatures_Developed_and_Developing_Countries
Or JSTOR: https://www.jstor.org/stable/440217?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Schmidt, Gregory D., and Kyle L. Saunders. 2004. “Effective Quotas, Relative Party Magnitude, and the Success of Female Candidates: Peruvian Municipal Elections In Comparative Perspective”. Comparative Political Studies. 37 (6): 704-734.

Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A. 2009. “Making Quotas Work: The Effect of Gender Quota Laws On the Election of Women”. Legislative Studies Quarterly. 34 (1): 5-28. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20680225

Skjeie, H. 1991. “The Rhetoric of Difference: On Women’s Inclusion into Political Elites”. Politics & Society. 19 (2): 233-263.

Select Books and Reports

Abdu, Hussaini. 2001. Women and politics in Nigeria: agenda for political participation. Kaduna, Nigeria: Women in Nigeria, Kaduna Chapter.

Afkhami, Mahnaz, Ann Eisenberg, and Lina Abu-Habib. 2010. Leading to action: a political participation handbook for women. Bethesda, MD.: Women’s Learning Partnership for Rights, Development, and Peace. https://learningpartnership.org/resource/leading-action-political-participation-handbook-for-women-manual-english

Al-Attiyat, Ibtissam, Mūsá Shutaywī, and Suleiman Sweiss. 2005. Building democracy in Jordan: women’s political participation, political party life and democratic elections. Stockholm: IDEA. http://www.idea.int/publications/dem_jordan/upload/Jordan_country_report_English.pdf

Arat, Yeşim. 2005. Rethinking Islam and liberal democracy: Islamist women in Turkish politics. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Ballington, Julie, and Azza M. Karam. 2005. Women in parliament: beyond numbers. Stockholm, Sweden: International IDEA. http://www.idea.int/publications/wip2/loader.cfm?csmodule=security/getfile&pageid=14128

Bauer, Gretchen, and Hannah Evelyn Britton. 2006. Women in African parliaments. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Brill-Scheuer, Alida. 1995. A rising public voice: women in politics worldwide. New York: Feminist Press at the City University of New York.

Bystydzienski, Jill M. 1992. Women transforming politics: worldwide strategies for empowerment. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Carroll, Susan J. 2001. The impact of women in public office. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Conway, M. Margaret, Gertrude A. Steuernagel, and David W. Ahern. 1997. Women and political participation: cultural change in the political arena. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press.

Darcy, R., Susan Welch, and Janet Clark. 1994. Women, elections & representation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Fitzsimmons, Tracy. 2000. Beyond the barricades: women, civil society, and participation after democratization in Latin America. New York: Garland Pub.

Franceschet, Susan. 2005. Women and politics in Chile. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Friedl, Erika. 1997. Muslim women and the politics of participation: implementing the Beijing platform. [Syracuse, NY]: Syracuse University Press.

Goetz, Anne Marie, and Shireen Hassim. 2003. No shortcuts to power: African women in politics and policy making. London: Zed Books.

Haffert, Kristin. 2010. Democracy and the challenge of change: a guide to increasing women’s political participation. Washington, DC: National Democratic Institute (NDI). http://www.ndi.org/files/Democracy_and_the_Challenge_of_Change.pdf

Iwanaga, Kazuki. 2008. Women’s political participation and representation in Asia: obstacles and challenges. Copenhagen: NIAS Press.

Iwanaga, Kazuki. 2008. Women and politics in Thailand: continuity and change. Copenhagen: NIAS Press.

Jaquette, Jane S. 1994. The women’s movement in Latin America: participation and democracy. Boulder: Westview Press.

Jaquette, Jane S., and Sharon L. Wolchik. 1998. Women and democracy: Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Joseph, Suad, and Susan Slyomovics. 2001. Women and power in the Middle East. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Karam, Azza M. 1998. Strengthening the role of women parliamentarians in the Arab region: challenges and options. Belfast: Queen’s University, School of Politics. http://www.euromedgenderequality.org/image.php?id=479

Lee, Rose J., and Cal Clark. 2000. Democracy and the status of women in East Asia. Boulder, Colo: L. Rienner.

Marks, Dorrit K. 1996. Women and grass roots democracy in the Americas: sustaining the initiative. Coral Gables, Fla: North-South Center Press.

Muṣṭafá, Hālah, ʻAbd al-Ghaffār Shukr, and ʻAmr Hāshim. 2005. Building democracy in Egypt: women’s political participation, political party life and democratic elections. Stockholm: IDEA. http://www.idea.int/publications/dem_egypt/upload/Egypt_country_report_English.pdf

Nelson, Barbara J., and Nājamā Caudhurī. 1994. Women and politics worldwide. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Ohman, M. 2018. Gender-targeted public funding for political parties: A comparative analysis. Strömsborg : International IDEA. https://www.idea.int/publications/catalogue/gender-targeted-public-funding-political-parties-comparative-analysis?lang=en

Paidar, Parvin. 1995. Women and the political process in twentieth-century Iran. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press.

Radcliffe, Sarah A., and Sallie Westwood. 1993. Viva: women and popular protest in Latin America. London: Routledge.

Rueschemeyer, Marilyn, ed. 1998. Women in the politics of postcommunist Eastern Europe. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.

Rueschemeyer, Marilyn, and Sharon L. Wolchik. 2009. Women in power in post-communist parliaments. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.

Thomas, Sue. 1994. How women legislate. New York: Oxford University Press.

Tripp, Aili Mari. 2000. Women & politics in Uganda. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

United Nations. 2000. Progress of the world’s women. New York, NY: UN Women. http://www.unwomen.org/resources/progress-of-the-worlds-women/