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Open Access Resources
Journal of Democracy
Select free articles from the Journal of Democracy, a leading publication on the theory and practice of democracy. The journal is part of the International Forum for Democratic Studies, housed within the National Endowment for Democracy.
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
The Endowment conducts programs of research, discussion, publication, and education in international affairs and U.S. foreign policy. Search Democracy and Governance.
Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law
Housed in the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University, the Center brings together policy, scholarship, and practice to advance the conditions for a just and democratic world.
Freedom House is a broad-based, non-partisan organization focused on promoting democratic values around the world and standing opposed to dictatorships. Find Freedom of the World and Nations in Transitions Reports,
Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies
The Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies conducts and promotes interdisciplinary research on key global and international issues at Stanford University. Search Publications with topic democracy.
Open Society Archives
OSA’s mission is to: obtain, preserve and make available research resources for the study of Communism and the Cold War, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the issues of human rights; support and facilitate the philanthropic goals of the Soros foundations network, especially by providing information, records management and archival services for all its entities.
American Center for International Labor Solidarity
Center for International Private Enterprise
International Republican Institute
National Democratic Institute for International Affairs
National Endowment for Democracy
Network of Democracy Research Institutes
People in Need Foundation
Project on Democratic Transitions, FPRI
Select Articles and Working Papers
Armijo, L., T. Biersteker, and A. Lowenthal. 1994. “The Problems of Simultaneous Transitions”. Journal of Democracy. 5 (4): 161-175.
Bermeo, Nancy. “Myths of Moderation: Confrontation and Conflict During Democratic Transitions”. Comparative Politics. 29, no. 3 (1997): 305-322
Bunce, Valerie, and Sharon L. Wolchik. 2009. “Postcommunist Ambiguities”. Journal of Democracy. 20 (3): 93-107.
Carothers, Thomas. 2002. “The End of the Transition Paradigm”. Journal of Democracy. 13 (1): 5-21.
Cheibub, Jose Antonio, Adam Przeworski, Fernando Papaterra Limongi Neto, and Michael M. Alvarez. 1996. “What Makes Democracies Endure?” Journal of Democracy. 7 (1): 39-55.
Di Palma, Giuseppe. 1991. “Why democracy can work in Eastern Europe”. Journal of Democracy. -. 21: 21-31.
Geremek, Bronislaw. 1999. “The Transformation of Central Europe”. Journal of Democracy. 10 (3): 115.
Haggard, Stephan, and Robert R Kaufman. “The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions”. Comparative Politics. 29, no. 3 (1997): 263-287
Huntington, Samuel P. 1996. “Democracy for the Long Haul”. Journal of Democracy. 7 (2): 3-13.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1997. “After Twenty Years: The Future of the Third Wave”. Journal of Democracy. 8 (4): 3-12.
Kucharczyk, Jacek. 2006. “Assisting democratic transition in Belarus: lessons from pre-1989 Poland.” Warsaw, Poland: Institute of Public Affairs. http://www.isp.org.pl/uploads/pdf/578805467.pdf
Levitsky, Steven, and Lucan Way. 2002. “The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism”. Journal of Democracy. 13 (2): 51-65.
Linz, Juan J. (Juan Jose), and Alfred C. Stepan. 1996. “Toward Consolidated Democracies”. Journal of Democracy. 7 (2): 14-33.
McFaul, Michael. “The Fourth Wave of Democracy and Dictatorship: Non-cooperative Transitions in the Postcommunist World”. World Politics. 54, no 2 (2002): 212-244
Morlino, Leonardo. 2008. “Hybrid regimes or regimes in transition?”. FRIDE Working Papers, No. 70. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265311948_Hybrid_Regimes_or_Regimes_in_Transition
McFaul, Michael. 2005. “Transitions from Postcommunism”. Journal of Democracy. 16 (3): 5-19.
Nodia, Ghia. 1996. “How Different are Postcommunist Transitions?” Journal of Democracy. 7 (4): 15-29.
Schedler, A. 2001. “Taking Uncertainty Seriously: The Blurred Boundaries of Democratic Transition and Consolidation”. Democratization. 8 (4): 1-22.
Schmitter, Philippe C. 2010. “Twenty-Five Years, Fifteen Findings”. Journal of Democracy. 21 (1): 17-28.
Ulfelder, J., and M. Lustik. 2007. “Modelling Transitions To and From Democracy”. Democratization. 14 (3): 351-387
Waylen, Georgina. 2003. “Gender and Transitions: What do we Know?” Democratization. 10 (1): 157-178.
Select Books and Reports
Anderson, Lisa. 1999. Transitions to democracy. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Antohi, Sorin, and Vladimir Tismaneanu. 2000. Between past and future: the revolutions of 1989 and their aftermath. New York: Central European University Press.
Bastian, Sunil and Robin Luckham. 2003. Can democracy be designed?: the politics of institutional choice in conflict-torn societies. London, England: Zed Books.
Badescu, Gabriel, and Eric M. Uslaner. 2003. Social capital and the transition to democracy. London: Routledge.
Berglund, Sten. 2001. Challenges to democracy : Eastern Europe ten years after the collapse of communism. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Pub.
Bozóki, András. 2002. The roundtable talks of 1989: the genesis of Hungarian democracy : analysis and documents. Budapest: Central European University Press.
Bratton, Michael, Nicolas Van de Walle. 1997. Democratic experiments in Africa : regime transitions in comparative perspective. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Cawthra, Gavin, and Robin Luckham. 2003. Governing insecurity: democratic control of military and security establishments in transitional democracies. London: Zed Books.
Coulson, Andrew. 1995. Local government in Eastern Europe: establishing democracy at the grassroots. Brookfield, VT: E. Elgar.
Ćwiek-Karpowicz, Jaroslaw and Piotr Maciej Kaczynski. 2006. Assisting negotiated transition to democracy: lessons from Poland 1980-1999. Warsaw, Poland: Institute of Public Affairs.
Dahl, Robert Alan. 1998. On democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Domínguez, Jorge I., and Marc Lindenberg. 1997. Democratic transitions in Central America. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Dryzek, John S. and Leslie Holmes. 2002. Postcommunist democratization : political discourses across thirteen countries. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Frentzel-Zagórska, Janina. 1993. From a one-party state to democracy: transition in Eastern Europe. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Rodopi.
Garon, Lise. 2003. Dangerous alliances: civil society, the media and democratic transition in North Africa. London, England: Zed Books.
González, Francisco E. 2008. Dual transitions from authoritarian rule : institutionalized regimes in Chile and Mexico, 1970-2000. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Habdank-Kolaczkowska, Sylvana, and Christopher Walker. 2011. Nations in Transit 2011: democratization from Central Europe to Eurasia. New York: Freedom House.
Huntington, Samuel P. 1991. The third wave: democratization in the late twentieth century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Grugel, Jean. 2002. Democratization: a critical introduction. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave.
Kaiser, Paul J. and F. Wafula Okumu. 2004. Democratic transitions in East Africa. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate.
Kuehnast, Kathleen R., and Carol Nechemias. 2004. Post-Soviet women encountering transition: nation building, economic survival, and civic activism. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
Kornai, János and Susan Rose-Ackerman. 2004. Building a trustworthy state in post- socialist transition. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Linz, Juan J., Alfred C. Stepan. 1996. Problems of democratic transition and consolidation: southern Europe, South America, and post-communist Europe. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lijphart, Arend, and Carlos H. Waisman. 1996. Institutional design in new democracies: Eastern Europe and Latin America. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press.
Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1995. The encyclopedia of democracy. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly.
Puddington Arch, Aili Piano, and Freedom House. 2011. Freedom in the world 2011: the annual survey of political rights & civil liberties. New York: Freedom House.
O’Donnell, Guillermo A., Philippe C. Schmitter, and Laurence Whitehead. 1991. Transitions from authoritarian rule: comparative perspectives. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
O’Donnell, Guillermo A., Philippe C. Schmitter, and Laurence Whitehead. 1986. Transitions from authoritarian rule. Latin America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Pollack, Detlef, and Jan Wielgohs. 2004. Dissent and opposition in communist Eastern Europe: origins of civil society and democratic transition. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Sanford, George. 2002. Democratic government in Poland: constitutional politics since 1989. New York, NY: Palgrave.
Shain, Yossi and Juan J. Linz. 1995. Between states: interim governments and democratic transitions. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Tilly, Charles. 2007. Democracy. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press.
von Beyme, Klaus. 1996. Transition to democracy in Eastern Europe. Basingstoke: Macmillan in association with International Political Science Association.
Wejnert, Barbara. 2002. Transition to democracy in Eastern Europe and Russia: impact on politics, economy, and culture. Westport, Conn: Praeger.
Whitehead, Laurence. 2002. Democratization: theory and experience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wolchik, Sharon L., and Jane Leftwich Curry. 2008. Central and East European politics: from communism to democracy. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.